First the English nearest equivalent is given , then an English and a Hindi word where it would fit.
This lesson may seem a little difficult but is really just a recap of what you have learnt so far.
These are gutturals produced from the back of the throat.
1.K as in hooK , Kamra (Room) ; ......2. Kh as in Khaki , Khargosh (rabbit) ;......3. G as in Gate , Gum (sadness) ;.....4. Gh as in Ghandi , Ghar (house ) ; and 5. N
Once again the five letters above are K ; Kh ; G ; Gh ; N
These are palatals where the tongue touches the back of the throat.
1.Ch as in Chunkey ( tongue touches top of mouth) , Chamcha (spoon) ;.....2. Chh as in no equiv in English ( tongue touches bottom teeth saying Ch).... , Chatri (Umbrella) .....; 3.J as in Jungle , Jab ( when) ; ...4.Jh as in no equiv in English-tongue touches bottom teeth , in Hindi as in Jhansi , Jhanda( flag) ;..5.. N
The letters are Ch ; Chh ; J ; Jh ; N. There is another way of writing JH which is quite popular and we will see that in Lesson 18
These are cereberals where the tongue is rolled back a bit.
1.T as in Turkey , tmatur( tomato) ; ....2. Th as in no equiv -tongue curls in more when saying t .... , .Thandi (cold) ;....3.D as in Dog, darr ( fear) ;.... 4.Dh -tongue curls more saying D- no equiv in English , dhakan (lid) ; and N 5.The letter Dh with a dot under it sounds like a combined sound with the tongue curled right back touching the roof and then uncurling hitting the palate and then the back teeth - no equiv in English , in Hindi ladki (girl) ;... 6 ughDH as in paDH (study ) .
The letters are T , THH , D , DH , N , ughDh and ughDHh
These are dentals where the tongue touches the teeth
1.Soft T ( tongue touches top teeth) no equiv , Tabla ( drum) ;.. 2.Th as in Thanks , haTHi (elephant) ;...3.Dh as in The , Davat (Invitation) ;.. 4.Dhh (from chest -no equiv) , Dhanush ( Bow) ;..5.N
The letters are soft T , Th , The , Thh , N
These are labials where the lips come together.
1.P as in Purse , Patang (Kite) ;... 2.F as in First , Fal ( Fruit) ;...3.B as in Bird , Batakh (Duck);...4.Bh as in no equiv(from chest ) , Bhalu ( Bear) ;...5.M as in Mum , Matr(Bean) ;
The above letters are P,F,B,Bh,M.
These are semivowels
1.Y as in Yo , Yug ( fire ritual);..2.R as in Run, Rath (Chariot)...3.L as in Lull, Ladhak;..4.V as in Vole , Var(Groom)
The above letters are Y , R, L , V
These are sibliants and the aspirant H
Sh as in Shirt , Shalgam (radish) Sh(chesty Sh-no equiv), shatkon (icon) .S as in Sup , Sapera ( snake charmer) 8.H as in hurt , Hum ( us)
The above letters are SH , SHH , S and H
Next are compound letters .
1.Ksh as in no equiv, Kshma (forgive) ;...2.SoftTr -no equiv -tongue touces top teeth trying to say Tr , Trishul (religious symbol) ;... 3.Ghya no euiv -Ghyan (Knowledge) ,.4. SHR as in shrug or shrap (curse) 5 Ri as in Wrist or Rishi
The above letters are KSH , TR , GY , SHR and Ri
The letters are 1. Dy as in viDYa -knowledge 2. Ru as in Ruth 3 Roo as in Room 4 HY as in HYundi or HYa (shame) 5. Lri as in Lrissa 6 DDh as in Yuddh (war ) 7 DV as in Dwarka ( place in India) 8 N'k as in aN'k - letter 9 N'g as in aN'g (limb)
The letters are tt as in kutta (dog) , dd as in saddi -century , tt as in lattu (top toy ), dd -not shown here as in haddi -bone , tthtth -hatti ( stubborn) , shht as in nashht (destroy) shhtth and N' . Also not written here is Z which is J with a dot underneath it.
Only some are listed below . They are just truncated full letters . As a test can you guess what they sound like?
The first one is K . Fig 2 has n, th,soft t , y and the next figure 3 has f , m , bh ,y,l, v, ksh , gya, n
Fig 4 has kh , g, b,s , ch, l , the, j , m ... fig 5 has b, bh , t(double t ) , f , gya, ksh , bh , p , gh , m
1.A as in Umm , Anar (Pomergranate);..2.AA as in Aunt , Aag ( Fire) ;..3.I as in India, Emli ( spice) ;...4.Ee as in East , Eent (brick) ;...5.U as in oops , ooloo (owl) 6.oo as in moon , oon (yarn)
The vowels are ugh, Aa, i, ee , u and oo
1. Ae as in Ami , Aedi (heel);..2..Aae as in Estimate, Aenak(Spectacle) ;...3.O as in only , Om (prayer);...4.Au as in Autumn , Aurat (woman);...5.Nasal N -as in Uncle , Angoor (grape) ; ..6..Aangh as in Aunt . Aankh(eye) ;...7.aei-rarely used
The vowels are ae , aae, o , au , ungh , angh and aei (sanskrit) eg prataei -sanskrti for morning.
This completes the detached vowels
Vowel marks when used with consonants
1.Aa as in Master, Mama;..2..little e as Miss, Mill (to meet);..3..Long ee as in Meat , Teer (Arrow);..4. oo as in Pull, Pashu (animal)..5..Long oo as in pool , Fool (flower);
The marks are Aa , i, ee, u , oo
1.Ae as in made , Mez(table);..2.Aae as in Stack , Gas;..3..O as in Roe, Moti (pearl);...4.Au as in Crawley, Hathoda ( hammer);..5..Ungh as in stung, Kanga (comb); ...6.Angh as in Cant , Sanp (snake);...7. uggh (doubling) -no equivealent - as in Chh (six) rarely used.
If you have stuck it out this far , well done !
As a test see if you can write down the English words January , February ...December in Hindi script and check it with the next lesson. Also write the numbers one , two .. till twenty as best as you can.
The letter R often has the short and long U placed in the middle rather than at the bottom.
What are these words ?
A short diagonal stroke also gives an R sound after a letter , usually placed below P or F . Note the R here modifiying the first word FAS to what ?
The answer is France ! Note the nasal N dot over the F.
Yes the R modifies the TK to give Truck .
Answer is Nritya.
Many brownie points if you got the answer right . It is Mark !!