Immunisation presents a bit of protein that looks like the bacterium or virus that causes the illness in an altered form so that the body learns to recognise it and kill the germ when it invades the body .
With time the body forgets and so some injections need to be updated every so often.
Age in months approximate
2 months Diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (Triple antigen) , Oral polio vaccine , Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) Meningitis C
3 months Diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis , Oral polio vaccine , Hib , Meningitis C
4 months Diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis , Oral polio vaccine Hib , Meningitis C
12 - 15 m Measles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR) , Hib (1 only) - if not given before .
3 years after this primary course
4 - 5 years (preschool booster) Diphtheria/ tetanus (Td) , Oral polio vaccine , MMR
14 yrs BCG -for those testing tuberclin negative.
15 - 19 years (or prior to leaving school) Adult diphtheria/tetanus , Oral polio
25yrs tetanus , polio , tetanus then and every 10 years afterwards for a total five doses in a lifetime .
Adult women - Rubella if seronegative for it .
All adults - Influenza , Pneumoccocus if vulnerable , see nurse
Non immunized children under 10 are given mmr , triple , polio , then triple and polio after one month , then triple and polio after another month , then mmr three months later , and finally triple and polio after 3 years.
Non immunised children over 10 are given mmr, triple (three courses if have siblings under age 5) , polio , then Td and polio after 1 month , then Td and polio after another month and finally ,mmr after three months .
Live vaccines are polio , mmr , bcg , Non live are tetanus , diptheria . The nurse keeps adrenaline 1mg/ml , 1 ml vials and antihistamines handy in case there are allergic reactions. Other vaccines are Hepatitis B , Hepatitis A , Influenza
Excellent site for more details of these illnesses
Diptheria is a very rare illness now , starting as a sore throat which used to cause heart illnesses . Those going to the former Soviet Union need to be sure they are up to date.
Meningitis C causes 60% of the severe cases and deaths Infection results in a fever and then severe headaches , intense lethargy , neck stiffness , a rash which doesnt blanch on pressure and pain on looking at any light . It infects the membranes which line the brain . Treatment with antibiotics is effective if given early.
Polio due to a virus is now very rare in Britain except in those who refuse vaccination . It causes permanent paralysis in parts of the body especially legs .
Tetanus bug lives in the soil and on rusty nails . It causes rigid muscle spasms and death within a few days . Vaccination by injection should be updated every ten years.
Whooping cough is also very rare now thanks to vaccination . It is due to a bacterium which causes continued coughing terminated by an intense intake of breath - the whoop.
Hemophilus Influenza B is a bacterium which stains negative with gram stain , causes sepsis in infants .
Hepatitis B is a virus which causes damage to the liver . Common in those who share needles during illegal drug injections and can be transmitted by sex .
For travel advice see another leaflet and also go to http://www.pencoedmedical.co.uk/travel.htm